Who Is Father Of Mathematics And What Is A Matrix In Math?

Who Is Father Of Mathematics And What Is A Matrix In Math?

The term “mathematics” originated from the Greek word “mathema” which means knowledge. The subject Mathematics comprises the study of different branches namely number theory, algebra, mathematical analysis, permutation and combination, mathematical logic, calculus, topology etc. Archimedes, who is the father of Mathematics lived between 287 BC – 212 BC. The birthplace of Archimedes was Syracuse, a Greek island of Sicily. He was assisting King Hiero II of Syracuse in resolving problems related to Mathematics and helping in expanding the king’s dynasty and his army.

A few notable innovations of Archimedes are as follows:

  • method of exhaustion to find the area occupied by the shapes
  • how spheres and cylinders are related?
  • applications of prime numbers
  • Archimedes’ Principle
  • Development of the concept of infinity
  • The law of equilibrium of fluids
  • The Quadrature of the Parabola
  • Computation of measurement of a circle
  • The Sand Reckoner
  • Loculus of Archimedes or Archimedes’ Box is a dissection puzzle that resembles a Tangram and many more.

As a token of appreciation towards the contributions made by Archimedes to the field of Science and for the outstanding achievement in Mathematics, “Fields Medal” is named after him. He was assassinated by a Roman soldier in 212 BC.

The word matrix was devised by an English mathematician named James Sylvester in the 19th century. The answer to the question of what is a matrix in math can be found here. A rectangular arrangement of numbers in the form of rows and columns is termed as a matrix. Various operations can be performed on matrices depending on the order of them. The number of rows and columns present in a matrix defines its order. The different types of matrices include:

  • Square matrix: same number of rows and columns
  • Diagonal matrix: All the numbers outside the principal diagonal are zero.
  • Identity matrix: the elements on the principal diagonal are 1 and the rest of the elements are 0.
  • Symmetric matrix: A matrix that is equal to its transpose.
  • Skew-symmetric matrix: A matrix that is equal to the negative of its transpose.
  • Orthogonal matrix: a square matrix with the numbers whose columns and rows contain orthogonal unit vectors.

The applications of matrices are as follows.

  • The payoff matrix determines the payoff for two players in game theory and economics, depending on the given set of alternatives that are chosen by the players.
  • The basic notion of graph theory depends on the concept of the adjacency matrix of a finite graph.
  • The square matrices whose rows are probability vectors are termed as Stochastic matrices where the numbers are positive and sum up to 1.
  • Stochastic matrices are used in defining the Markov chains with finitely many states.
  • Linear transformations and the symmetries associated with it are important topics and are useful in modern physics.
  • Geometrical optics involve the use of matrices.
  • The idea of traditional mesh and nodal analysis in electronics guide to a group of linear equations that can be explained using a matrix.

The uses of matrices have wide applicability. Few of them are listed above for reference.

Preparation For The Judiciary Examination

Preparation For The Judiciary Examination

The Judicial Services Examination provides an assured and the most respected holdings in the government sector besides which it allows the selected deserving candidate to serve the nation. The judiciary possesses the highest powers in our constitution, and they can do justice to the natives of our country in every manner.

Judicial Services Examination, which is often known as the PCS (J)-Provincial Civil Service-Judicial Examination, is an entry-level exam for graduates from the field of law to become a member of the lower judiciary department. Based on this competitive exam, the state governments assign the members of the lower judiciary. The entire process, i.e., from the conduction of examination until the hiring, should be preceded under the guidance of the respected high courts.

The increased number of aspirants appearing for the examination has increased the competition level. Thus, if you are preparing for the first time, it is recommended to take proper coaching. However, during this pandemic condition, as all the classes are suspended until further notice, one can go for the Online Coaching Classes for Judiciary exam, easily available across the internet platform.

Eligibility Criteria For Judicial Service Examination

For Lower Judiciary Services:

  • The candidate must be having an LLB degree for appearing in the exam
  • Enrollment as an Advocate under the Advocates’ Act 1961 or at least should be eligible to be enrolled in the act as one
  • The best part is that the exam doesn’t require you to have the experience, and it is why the final year students of the Law stream also are qualified to take this exam
  • The approximate age limit for the examination is 21-35 years, but it again differs across the borders of different states

How to prepare for judiciary while in law school - iPleaders

For Higher Judiciary Services:

  • The minimum qualification for taking the exam for higher judiciary services is LLB, i.e., one must have completed his/her graduation in law.
  • Experience is also required in the field; a minimum of usually seven years litigating practice

What Stages The Candidate Will Require To Clear

The complete process of Judicial Service Examination has three successive stages, named as follow:

  • Preliminary
  • Mains
  • PI Round, i.e., Interview Round

The prelims can be understood more as a screening for the Second round, i.e., the mains exam. The prelim exam follows an objective type question pattern. The qualifying marks differ among the different states.

It, taking us to the mains examination then, it is a subjective exam comprising of three to four papers. The marks secured here are counted for the finals. Last but not least, Personal Interview is the final stage of selection.

All the states have different syllabus for the examination.


The answer to the question, “How to Prepare for Judiciary,” or for any other exam, is a well-oriented preparatory plan and implemented the same attentively. Besides knowledge of the field, one must also be aware of current affairs. To begin with the preparation, one must understand the syllabus and the exam pattern first.

India, being the third-largest online market for education globally, enables the students to take better advantage of the resources available online. Thus, if you feel financially constrained to join the expensive coaching’s, then you can access a better learning experience over the virtual platform. Online Coaching Classes for Judiciary are readily available to take advantage of, especially in the ongoing COVID scenario.

SSC CGL Analysis

SSC CGL Analysis

Every year a horde of candidates aspiring to get recruited at posts like Accountant, Junior Accountant, Clerk, Tax Assistant, Inspector, Sub-Inspector, etc. take the SSC CGL examination. The increased number has self-evidently augmented the competition level among the aspirants to a great extent. Though an appropriate plan is necessary to get started with your preparation, a proper analysis of the examination is even more vital. The analysis of exam pattern and level can put you in the picture that what modifications you require in your studies to match the level of the exam.

If you are already taking coaching classes for the particular exam, whether it be offline or online coaching for SSC CGL, you will always be prepared with the exam analysis to improve further your understanding of the altering patterns across the exam.

Basic Outline Of The Exam

The SSC first-tier exam comprising of a whole of 200 marks, the questions asked will be 100. The candidates are provided only an hour to complete the paper. The entire exam consists of four sections, i.e., covers four subjects named:

  • General Intelligence and Reasoning
  • English Comprehension
  • General Awareness
  • Quantitative Aptitude

The sections mentioned above carries 50 marks, each distributed amongst 25 questions.              


The first shift SSC CGL exam conducted was on the 3rd of March 2020. Almost all the shifts conducted this year were moderately designed. Coming to the detailed analysis of shifts of the SSC CGL 2020 exam, here is the brief explanation of the difficulty level below for you to look at.

  • Overall

The general intelligence and reasoning segment were easy to solve and, thus, was the scoring one. In contrast, if we talk about general awareness, then most of the section was from current affairs and therefore was moderate to solve.

The First Shift, I.E., On 3rd of March 2020 Analysis

  • Quantitative Aptitude

The section was quite lengthy and the questions asked were of moderate difficulty level. The arithmetic chapter covered the maximum problems of the section where other major questions were from units like Number System, DI (Tabular), Ratio, Trigonometry, and Average. However, co-ordinate Geometry didn’t cover any questions in the shift.

  • Reasoning

The questions were easy to moderate and mostly from topics: Analogy, Coding-Decoding, and odd one out and no questions from the unit Matrix.

  • English Language

Instead of the Reading comprehension segment, a cloze test was asked with five sub-questions.

  • General Awareness

It was an easy to moderate level segment where questions mostly revolved around Dance, Current Affairs, and Sports.  Science was a hugely discussed topic this time in the Tier-1 exam.

Similarly, you can also analyze different question papers properly and prepare accordingly. It would help you with your preparations even if you had already prepared for the exam.

Lastly, I would suggest that going for the mock tests will also increase your efficacy for the exam. The questions are asked both in Hindi and English language in the exam, but if you want to practice in Hindi, no need to worry SSC CGL mock test in Hindi are readily available these days over the internet.

Rapid Shift Towards Online Teaching

Rapid Shift Towards Online Teaching

Giving an entrance test could be a tricky task especially when the student is not having proper guidance on the subject. A wide number of educational institutes have been opened which provide proper materials and guidance to prepare for the entrance tests. But, the student usually looks for the best faculty which might be far away in some cases. Due to this reason, most of the educational institutes have begun to provide online coaching facilities by which students at the comfort of their homes are able to attend lectures and prepare for their tests. These institutions have even come on our mobile phones through specific applications that could be downloaded from the play store.

Now, the whole education sector has been moved online especially after the pandemic where traveling over to attend a coaching class within a wide group of people could become a very risky task. The Covid-19 situation has brought all of us working in our homes. So the educational institutions are not lacking behind, rather they have moved all of their classes online where a student sitting at their comfort of homes could play the lectures which are easily available all over the globe.

A wide number of entrance tests are undertaken every year for students to give admission to higher universities. Usually, the entrance tests vary according to the streams and preferences of candidates. Many educational institutes provide SAT online coaching. 1 on 1 SAT tutor is also available. This is one such exam which means Scholastic Assessment Test. This is a standardized test administered by the college and is pursued by students who seek admission in undergraduate schools. The institutes charge a certain fee from their students after which they can watch the lectures easily in the comfort of their homes any number of times.

The following are some of the major reasons due to which educational institutes have moved online and the demand for it among students has been increased accordingly.

  • Flexibility: The major part of online teaching is the flexibility that has been provided to the students. They can easily attend the lectures on their demand as the facility to attend the same has been provided 24×7.
  • Reduction in cost: All that cost which was incurred earlier for transportation has been reduced because all the lectures are delivered online for which the student has to pay a very economical amount.
  • Revision: The revision of the lectures could be done numerous times that gives clarity about the topic to the candidates.
  • Clarification: If the student faces any problem or has any query then that could be easily communicated as the contact details of the trainer is provided accordingly.

To conclude the above discussion, the preparation of SAT and many other entrance tests could be done very easily through the online mode which is the future of the education sector. Many entrance tests, quizzes, and mock tests are conducted on a regular basis which provides much-needed confidence to the students. So, the candidates must get facilities at their homes which saves a lot of time and reduces the cost of transportation and heavy tuition fees. The quality of these facilities could be proven by the kind of results they have shown over the years so just students must avail of the opportunity.